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Review: patients who have schizophrenia have increased mortality from all causes, natural causes, and unnatural causes

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Question What is the mortality rate in patients who have schizophrenia?

Data sources

Studies were identified by searching Medline and BIDS Gateway (1986–96) and scanning the bibliographies of relevant studies.

Study selection

Studies were selected if they were cohort studies published in English or French, were peer reviewed, had >100 patients, had ≥2 years of follow up, had ≥85% of patients complete the study follow up, and the number of observed and expected deaths could be calculated.

Data extraction

The number of observed and expected deaths were extracted.

Main results

Meta-analytical techniques were used. 18 studies (61 161 patients) met the inclusion criteria. 10 260 deaths occurred and 6788 deaths were expected. Aggregate standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by dividing the sum of the observed deaths by the sum of the expected deaths (derived from matched cohorts of the general population) …

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