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Low family cohesion was associated with the incidence of major depressive disorder in adolescents

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To determine the incidence, transitions over 1 year, and risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia in adolescents.


3 year cohort analytic study.


6 public middle and high schools in south east USA.


247 adolescents who were at a higher risk for MDD or who were selected randomly from students not at risk for MDD. Participants completed at least 2 consecutive evaluations which resulted in 359 observations.

Assessment of risk factors

A self administered questionnaire was used to screen participants and gather data on demographic variables, depression (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]), suicide (3 items added to the CES-D), life changes (a modified version of the Coddington Life Event Schedule for Adolescents), and family environment (Family Adaptation and Cohesion Evaluation Scales). Socioeconomic status was measured using the Hollingshead …

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