Table 1

Randomised controlled trial inclusion criteria*

1Children ≤18 years of age were the main focus or were clearly reported on separately if part of an adult study.
2Interventions addressed childhood behaviour problems, including ODD and/or CD.
a. For prevention, at enrolment/pretest, <50% had a primary ODD/CD diagnosis or had been referred for treatment for behaviour problems or had been arrested.
b. For treatment, at enrolment/pretest, ≥50% had a primary ODD/CD diagnosis or had been referred for treatment for behaviour problems or had been arrested.
3Clear descriptions were provided of participant characteristics, study settings and interventions.
4Participants (or clusters) were randomly assigned to intervention and either control (no-intervention) or comparison (treatment-as-usual) groups at study outset.
5Behaviour indicators included either one diagnostic measure where the diagnostician was blinded, or two symptom measures evaluated by two or more informant sources, eg, child, parent or teacher, at least one of whom was blinded.
6Outcome measures pertained to ODD/CD, eg, scales had established reliability and validity or ≥50% of items addressed ODD/CD symptoms.
7Maximum attrition was 20% at post-test (medication studies) or at follow-up (prevention or psychosocial treatment studies) or authors used intention-to-treat analyses.
8For prevention and psychosocial treatment studies, postintervention follow-up was 3 months or more.
9For medication studies, double-blinding and placebo controls were used, and side effects were comprehensively assessed.
10Statistical significance (using p<0.05) was reported for relevant outcome measures at post-test (medication studies) or at follow-up (prevention and psychosocial treatment studies).
11Interventions were evaluated in high-income countries (by World Bank standards).
12Studies were not limited to specialised populations, such as children residing in abused women’s shelters, to retain broad applicability to children at risk of or who have ODD/CD.
  • *For inclusion, all criteria had to be met.

  • CD, conduct disorder; ODD, oppositional defiant disorder.