Table 2

Characteristics of the systematic reviews included in the meta-review

StudyType of studies includedStudy designPopulationInterventionComparisonPrimary outcomes
Arnold et al,38 2015Observational studiesSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adultsAny treatmentAnyLong-term outcomes (≥2 years)
Arnold et al,39 2015Observational studiesSystematic review731 668 Children, adolescents and adultsAny treatmentAnyLong-term academic achievement
Asherson et al,22 2014RCTsPooled analysis of sponsored trials1413 AdultsAtomoxetinePlaceboSymptoms of ADHD
Asherson et al,23 2015RCTsPooled analysis of sponsored trials829 AdultsAtomoxetinePlaceboEmotional control
Bangs et al,37 2014RCTsMeta-analysis7248 Children, adolescents and adultsAtomoxetinePlaceboSuicide-related behaviour or ideation
Barkla et al,54 2015Animal and human studiesSystematic reviewAdolescents and adults with substance abuseMethylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine, lisdexamfetamineAnySide effects of combining ADHD medication with alcohol and drugs of abuse
Benson et al,55 2015Observational studiesMeta-analysisCollege students with and without ADHDStimulant medicationsAnyRates of stimulant misuse
Bruce et al,48 2014Non-randomised clinical trialsSystematic reviewYoung driversBehavioural interventionsAnyDriving performance
Buoli,5 2016AnySystematic reviewAdultsAlternative pharmacological treatments (excluding methylphenidate and atomoxetine)AnyEfficacy and tolerability
Bushe et al,16 2016RCTsMeta-analysisAdultsAtomoxetine and osmotic-release oral system methylphenidatePlaceboEfficacy and acceptability
Cairncross and Miller,43 2016Clinical trialsMeta-analysis178 Children, adolescents and adultsMindfulness-based therapiesAnySymptoms of ADHD
Caisley and Muller,30 2012Observational studiesSystematic reviewAdultsAny pharmacological treatmentAnyAdherence
Camporeale et al,36 2013RCTsPooled analysis of sponsored trials3314 AdultsAtomoxetinePlaceboSexual and genitourinary adverse events
Castells et al,32 2013RCTsMeta-analysis2496 AdultsMethylphenidatePlaceboAll-cause treatment discontinuation
Castells et al,18 2011RCTsMeta-analysis1091 AdultsAmphetaminesAnyEfficacy and tolerability
Castells et al,15 2011RCTsMeta-analysis2045 AdultsMethylphenidatePlaceboSymptoms of ADHD
Chandler,44 2013Clinical trialsSystematic review566 Adolescents and adultsCognitive–behavioural therapyAnySymptoms of ADHD
Coghill et al,42 2013Observational studies and clinical trialsSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adults, healthy and with ADHDLong-acting methylphenidate formulationsLong-acting methylphenidate formulationsComparative efficacy of the long-acting formulations available
Coghill et al,35 2014Observational studies and clinical trialsSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adultsLisdexamfetamineAnySafety
Cunill et al,21 2013RCTsMeta-analysis3375 AdultsAtomoxetinePlaceboAll-cause treatment discontinuation
Cunill et al,53 2015RCTsMeta-analysis1271 Children, adolescents and adults with co-occurring ADHD and substance use disorderAny pharmacological treatmentPlaceboSymptoms of ADHD, all-cause treatment discontinuation, drug abstinence
Cunill et al,14 2016RCTsMeta-analysis9952 AdultsAny pharmacological treatmentPlaceboAll-cause treatment discontinuation
Frank et al,31 2015Observational studies and clinical trialsSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adultsAmphetamine, methylphenidate, atomoxetine, guanfacine, clonidineAnyAdherence and side effects
Fredriksen et al,40 2013Observational studies and clinical trialsSystematic reviewAdultsAmphetamine, methylphenidate, atomoxetineAnyEfficacy and tolerability
Fridman et al,19 2015RCTsMeta-analysis6770 Children, adolescents and adultsLisdexamfetamine, atomoxetine, osmotic-release oral system methylphenidatePlaceboSymptoms of ADHD
Ganizadeh,27 2013Clinical trialsSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adultsAripiprazoleAnyEfficacy and tolerability
Ganizadeh,28 2013Clinical trialsSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adultsMagnesiumAnyEfficacy and tolerability
Ganizadeh,29 2015Clinical trialsSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adultsReboxetineAnyEfficacy and tolerability
Gobbo and Louza,47 2014RCTsSystematic review283 AdultsMethylphenidate, mixed amphetamine salts, atomoxetine and lisdexamfetamineAnyDriving performance
Jensen et al,46 2016Clinical trialsMeta-analysis85 AdultsCognitive–behavioural therapyTreatment as usualQuality of life and adverse events
Linderkamp and Lauth,51 2011Clinical trialsMeta-analysisAdultsAny pharmacological treatment, psychotherapeutic therapiesAnyEfficacy
Maneeton et al,25 2014RCTsMeta-analysis146 Children, adolescents and adultsBupropionMethylphenidateEfficacy, acceptability and tolerability
Maneeton et al,20 2014RCTsMeta-analysis806 AdultsLisdexamfetaminePlaceboEfficacy, acceptability and tolerability
Matsui et al,26 2016Clinical trialsSystematic review499 Children, adolescents and adultsBuspironeAnyEfficacy, acceptability and tolerability
Mick et al,33 2012RCTsMeta-analysis2144 AdultsMethylphenidate, mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetaminePlaceboHeart rate and blood pressure
Shaw et al,41 2012Observational studies and clinical trialsSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adultsAny pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multimodalControl, proband, placebo, untreated, no treatment, pretreatment, comparator, follow-up, normalLong-term outcomes (≥2 years)
Tamminga et al,17 2016RCTsMeta-analysis1611 Children, adolescents and adultsMethylphenidatePlaceboExecutive functions
Vidal-Estrada et al,45 2012Clinical trialsSystematic review508 Children, adolescents and adultsCognitive–behavioural therapy, metacognitive therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, coaching, cognitive remediationAnySymptoms of ADHD
Westover and Halm,34 2012Observational studiesSystematic reviewChildren, adolescents and adults with prescription stimulant useMethylphenidate, mixed amphetamine salts, dextroamphetamineAnyHard cardiovascular outcomes
Weyandt et al,56 2014Clinical trialsSystematic reviewAdolescents and adultsLisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, amphetamines and mixed-amphetamine saltsAnyEfficacy and stimulant misuse
  • ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; RCTs, randomised controlled trials.