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Group-based parent training programmes demonstrate positive effects on the psychosocial well-being of both mothers and fathers
  1. Eunjung Kim
  1. Department of Family and Child Nursing, University of Washington, School of Nursing, Box 357262, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; eunjungk{at}

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What is already known on this topic?

A previous meta-analysis by the same first author focused on parent training using data on mothers found that parent training programmes improved mothers’ psychosocial well-being, including depression, anxiety/stress, self-esteem and spouse/marital adjustment.1

What this paper adds?

  • Previous findings for mothers were replicated. Postintervention, parent training programmes significantly decreased maternal depression, anxiety, stress, anger, guilt, and improved maternal confidence and satisfaction with the partner relationship. Yet only maternal stress and confidence continued to be statistically significant at short-term follow-up (1–6 months), and none were significant at long-term follow-up (more than 6 months).

  • Parent training programmes significantly reduced paternal stress postintervention.


  • Publication bias needs to be addressed, because small studies with non-significant result effects usually do not get published.

  • Outcomes at three different time points were presented; yet different studies were included at each point of analysis. Furthermore, very few studies had long-term follow-up data. For example, regarding maternal depressive symptoms, data analysis included 22 studies for postintervention, 13 for short-term and 7 for …

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