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Higher dietary intakes of potassium, calcium and magnesium are associated with a reduced risk of developing vascular dementia

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Question: Do the dietary intakes of potassium, calcium and magnesium affect the risk of developing dementia in Japanese adults?

People: In total, 1081 adults participating in the Hisayama study aged 60 years or older who did not have dementia at the start of the study and for whom information on dietary intakes was available.

Setting: Hisayama, Japan; December 1988 to November 2005.

Risk factors: Dietary intakes of potassium, calcium and magnesium. This was calculated from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire completed before the start of the study. Individuals were split into quartiles of consumption, with those in the lowest consumption quartile acting as the reference group. Information on medical history, antidiabetic and hypertensive treatments, educational status, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity were also collected. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex and the other potential confounders measured.

Outcomes: Dementia. Annual health examinations were performed and a daily monitoring system was established. Comprehensive screening for cognitive function including neuropsychological tests was carried out at 4, 10 and 17 years’ follow-up. Dementia was diagnosed using …

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