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Childhood and young adult-onset depression are associated with similar psychosocial risk factors

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Do child-, adolescent- and young adult-onset depression have distinct risk factors and is their effect time limited?


1004 children. A representative sample of 9 and 11-year-old children from the study areas were assessed with Child Behaviour checklist. Those scoring above a predefined cut-off designed to identify the most pathological 25% of the population were selected to take part, plus a random sample of 10% of other children and all eligible American Indian children.


Community setting, North Carolina, USA; study period not reported.

Risk factors

Psychosocial risk factors including poverty, loss (including death) and violence events, parental psychopathology, maltreatment and family dysfunction. Risk factors were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) annually up to age 16, and then the Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment (YAPA) at ages 19 and 21. Risk factors were assessed at the time of interview and in the preceding 3 months. Risk factors exposure was grouped into childhood (9 to <13 years), adolescence (13–16 years), and young adult (age …

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