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Are children and young adults using attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication are at increased risk for serious cardiovascular adverse events?
1 200 438 children and young people (aged 2–24 years; mean age 11.1 years at baseline) enrolled in one of four health plans (Tennessee Medicaid, Washington State Medicaid, Kaiser Permanente California and OptumInsight Epidemiology). Patients with congenital heart disease were included. Main exclusions were enrolment for less than 1 year before the first day of medication use; potentially life-threatening serious illness; hospital discharge in last year with heart attack or stroke.
Four health plans, USA; from 1986 to 2005.
Current use of ADHD medication (methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dextroamphetamines, amphetamine salts, atomoxetine or pemoline). Individuals using these medications were identified from medical records, and could leave and re-enter the cohort as long as they continued to meet eligibility criteria. For each ADHD medication user up to two non-users were selected at random from the same site. Controls were matched by calendar year, age and gender and could have previous non-qualifying use of ADHD medications. Time spent in hospital and 30 days after discharge was not included as data on drugs dispensed in hospital was not available, and deaths in hospital were not an outcome of the study.
Serious cardiovascular …
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