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Adolescent panic attacks are associated with increased risk of personality disorder as a young adult

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 Q Do panic attacks during adolescence increase the risk of axis I personality disorder as a young adult?

METHODS

Embedded ImageDesign:

Prospective cohort study.

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

Ten years.

Embedded ImageSetting:

Two upstate New York counties, USA; 1983–93.

Embedded ImagePeople:

717 young people (mean age 14 years at baseline; 49% male; 91% white), whose families had been randomly selected from the population of the two counties. Participants and their mothers were interviewed independently in 1983, 1985–86, and 1991–93, using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC).

Embedded ImageRisk factors:

Panic attacks: defined as more than two panic attacks reported by either the parent or participant, and the presence of at least one of 13 panic symptoms (such as breathlessness or increased heart rate). Odds ratios were adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, adolescent personality disorder, major depression, …

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