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Abstinence incentives improve stimulant abusers’ compliance with community-based psychosocial treatments

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 Q Does the addition of incentives contingent on abstinence improve outcomes for community-based, psychosocial treatments for drug dependence?

METHODS

Embedded ImageDesign:

Multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:

Concealed.

Embedded ImageBlinding:

Unblinded.

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

Twelve weeks.

Embedded ImageSetting:

Eight community based outpatient clinics, USA; enrolment 2001 to 2003.

Embedded ImagePatients:

445 outpatient currently using stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine), with self-reported or urine sample proven stimulant use in the two weeks after study entry. 30 participants were excluded from analysis for not meeting inclusion criteria.

Embedded ImageIntervention:

All participants received standard care, as well as urine tests once to twice a week for up to 24 tests. Abstinence incentive scheme: participants whose urine was negative for stimulants or alcohol were allowed to draw 1–12 tokens. The number of tokens increased with each consecutive negative test result, and …

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