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Causal inference from experiment and observation


  1. Correspondence to Dr Marcel Zwahlen, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, Bern CH 3012, Switzerland; marcel.zwahlen{at}
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Zwahlen M, Salanti G
Causal inference from experiment and observation

Publication history

  • Received 12 November 2017
  • Revised 5 December 2017
  • Accepted 7 December 2017
  • Published online 23 January 2018.

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