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What is the prevalence of negative symptoms in outpatients treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder?
1452 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, aged 18–74 years, participating in the CLAMORS (Cardiovascular, Lipid and Metabolic Outcomes Research in Schizophrenia) study. Outpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition criteria for schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder, and who had received oral antipsychotic treatment with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, amisulpride or haloperidol, for 12 weeks or longer, were included. Outpatients treated with two or more antipsychotics, and those who were admitted to hospital at the time of evaluation, were excluded.
Multicentre (91 outpatient centres) study carried out from May 2004 to April 2005.
Negative symptoms and clinical severity were assessed using five items from the schizophrenia Postive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative symptoms subscale (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, poor rapport, social withdrawal and verbal fluency). A PANSS symptom severity score of >3 on an item indicated a negative symptom being present (scale 1–7, where 1 = symptom absent and 7 = symptom extremely severe). The sum of the scores of the five PANSS …
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